Fossil oil, also known as petroleum or crude oil, is a naturally occurring flammable liquid found beneath the Earth's surface. It is formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient plants and microorganisms that have been subjected to intense heat and pressure.
Fossil oil is the most significant source of energy in the world, playing a pivotal role in various sectors such as transportation, manufacturing, and power generation. It is a versatile resource, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that can be refined into various products.
Crude oil is one of the most actively traded commodities in the world, and for good reason. It has the power to drive the economy into recession and is always present in politics.
Commonly known as petroleum. It comes from Latin and means Petra.
"Skirt" + oleum:"oil").
It is a naturally occurring yellow-black liquid found in subsurface strata. It is usually refined into various types of fuels. The components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation. H. Separating a liquid mixture into fractions of different boiling points, usually by distillation using a fractionating column. Hydrocarbons are usually the main constituents, but their composition varies between 50% and 97% depending on the type and method of extraction.
Light oils (diesel or D2) are a group of petroleum distillate products with boiling points between lubricating oils and kerosene. The term originally referred to the products of an oil and gas plant that are added to those of a coal gas plant to produce upgraded lighting gas. Small molecules such as those in propane, naphtha, motor gasoline, and jet fuel have relatively low boiling points and are removed early in the fractional distillation process. The main difference between GASOIL and D2 is the sulfur content.
D6 virgin fuel oil, also known as residual heating oil, has a higher viscosity. This special fuel must be preheated to 104°C to 127°C (220°F to 260°F).
The term fuel oil generally includes liquid fuels that are burned in furnaces or boilers to produce heat or used in engines to produce electricity. However, other liquid oils, such as liquid oils with a flash point of approximately 42°C (108°F), or oils burned in cotton or wool wick burners, are generally not included. In a narrow sense, kerosene refers only to the heaviest commercial fuels derived from crude oil, fuels heavier than gasoline (gasoline) and naphtha.
Automotive gas oil (AGO diesel), also known as diesel, is obtained by distillation of crude oil. Used to efficiently drive internal combustion diesel engines. Autogas Oil (AGO) diesel fuel is a liquid fuel commonly used in diesel engines where ignition of the fuel occurs without a spark by compression of the intake air mixture and subsequent fuel injection. (Glow plugs, grid heaters, and block heaters help increase combustion temperatures during cold engine starts.) Diesel engines are more thermodynamically efficient, and therefore more fuel efficient, making them more versatile. used for This is especially true when diesel engines are operated at partial load. Efficiency remains very high as the air supply is not throttled like in gasoline engines.
Mazut is a vicious black heavy oil (HFO) used as a commercial fuel. Mainly used for power generation in factories. It is also used in the production of diesel in the United States and Europe. In Russia and other Eastern Bloc countries it is used for residential heating. This oil is very attractive to consumers because of its cheap price, availability, and ease of purification in its raw form. The M100 GOST is also manufactured according to GOST specifications.
Aviation fuel is a petroleum-based fuel or a mixture of petroleum and synthetic fuels used to power aircraft. These have stricter requirements than fuels used for land applications such as heating and road transport, and contain additives to improve or maintain properties important to the fuel's performance and handling. Designed for use on aircraft with gas turbine engines. It has a colorless to straw-colored appearance. The most common fuels used in civil aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are manufactured according to standardized international specifications. The only other jet fuel commonly used in turbine-powered civil aviation is Jet B, which is used to improve performance in cold weather.
Gilsonite (also known as uintahtite, asphaltum, or asphaltite) is a naturally occurring soluble solid hydrocarbon and a type of asphalt (or bitumen) with a relatively high melting temperature.
This is a solid mineral asphalt that is classified by geologists as he is soluble in oil solvents such as CS2, TCE, CCL4.
Solid asphalts, including Gilsonite, go by a variety of names around the world, depending on the name of the region and the industry that is the primary user of natural asphalt.
Benzene is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H6. Its molecule consists of six carbon atoms bonded in a planar ring, each with a hydrogen atom attached. Benzene is a hydrocarbon because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms .
Diesel EN590 (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel) describes the physical properties that automotive diesel fuels must meet in the European Union and the United Kingdom. Since 2007, this has been called "ultra-low sulfur diesel". This is because sulfur's former function as a lubricant is gone (it must be replaced by an additive). Although there are national standards for automotive diesel, the commonly traded standards are EN560 and EN590 as specified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Paris. Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) is a fuel with significantly lower sulfur content. As of 2006, almost all petroleum-based diesel fuels available in Europe and North America are of he ULSD type.
Light cycle oil (LCO) is a product in the diesel boiling range of a fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU). However, without further processing, LCO is a poor diesel fuel blending component. Petroleum refining is an industrial process involving separation, conversion and refining. FCC-centric refineries utilize a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) with a main conversion unit. FCCU is responsible for the production of gasoline, LPG and light cycle oil (LCO). Due to its high efficiency, diesel is the most important fuel for automobiles. Globally, there is more demand for diesel than gasoline, but many older refineries have optimized their plants to produce more gasoline than diesel. Light cycle oils are diesel boiling range materials produced in FCCUs in addition to gas and gasoline. The LCO is processed in a Diesel Hydrotreater (DHT) unit to produce environmentally friendly low sulfur diesel.
Bitumen is a naturally occurring, black, sticky, highly toxic form of petroleum. It is very thick and heavy and must be diluted or heated before it can flow. This occurs naturally and is sometimes referred to by the term "raw asphalt". Although its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses, the material obtained from fractional distillation of crude oil with a boiling point of 525°C (977°F) is sometimes called "refined bitumen".
The main use of asphalt (70%) is in road construction, where it is used as an adhesive or binder mixed with aggregate particles to produce asphalt concrete. Other major uses are in bituminous waterproofing products such as roofing felt manufacturing and flat roof waterproofing. Materials can be found in many forms. Tar is derived from petroleum, rock asphalt and is natural.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a mixture of natural gas (mainly methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6)) that has been cooled to a liquid for easier and safer storage and transportation without decompression. (1) ) odorless, (2) colorless, (3) non-toxic, and (4) non-corrosive. Hazards include (1) flammability by evaporation to gaseous state, (2) freezing, and (3) asphyxiation. Removes specific components that can cause problems downstream, such as (1) dust, (2) acid gases, (3) helium, (4) water, and (5) heavy hydrocarbons. The natural gas is then condensed to a liquid near atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately -162 °C (-260 °F). Maximum transport pressure is set at approximately 25 kPa (4 psi).
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), simply called "propane" or "butane", is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel for heaters, cookware and vehicles. They are increasingly being used as aerosol propellants and refrigerants to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The aim is to reduce damage to the ozone layer (O3). It is often called autogas, especially when used as a vehicle fuel.
Base oils or pure base oils are used in the manufacture of products such as greases, motor oils and metalworking fluids. Almost all lubricants used in equipment today were originally just base oils. Different products require different oil compositions and properties. One of the most important factors is the viscosity of liquids at different temperatures. The type of base oil produced depends on the concentration of its molecules. It also depends on how easily these can be extracted.
Naphtha is a combustible liquid hydrocarbon mixture. A blend called naphtha was made from the distillation of liquid natural gas, petroleum distillates, coal tar and peat.
In various industries and regions, "naphtha" can also be a refined product such as crude oil or kerosene. Mineral spirits, also historically known as "naphtha," are not the same chemical. Nephi and Naphtal are sometimes used interchangeably. White gasoline, typified by Coleman Camp Fuel, is a common naphtha-based fuel used in many lanterns and torches.